Independent senator Jacqui Lambie says Pauline Hanson's One Nation endangered her safety by publishing her personal phone number on social media.
The Coalition and Labor have condemned the leak, which came amid fears over the safety of Australia's politicians, with opposition Senate leader Penny Wong warning "if you start a fire, it can quickly overwhelm us".
Senator Lambie, who on Monday vehemently opposed One Nation's push against vaccine mandates, told the Senate she feared for her safety and her loved ones.
The Australian Federal Police are investigating a number of "specific threats" against Australian politicians, while open threats to murder Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews were made at protests that saw gallows erected outside state parliament. Two men who allegedly made violent threats against West Australian Premier Mark McGowan and his family have been described as acting like terrorists.
Senator Lambie said she had been inundated by abusive and threatening phone calls since her number was posted online on Tuesday morning.
"If you've got someone's number, it's not hard to find out personal details that are linked to it," she said.
"One Nation have crossed a line here that should never be crossed. You've got the AFP briefing politicians about our safety, we've got gallows on the steps of Victoria's parliament.
"Senators in this very chamber should not be facilitating any abuse."
Senator Lambie said her number had been given to veterans suffering mental health crises. "Those veterans know they can call me at any time of the day or night if they need someone to listen to them," she said.
Labor Senate leader Penny Wong blasted One Nation for the leak, which she said was risking the safety of her colleagues. But she also took aim at Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who was widely accused of dog-whistling by following condemnation of threats to Mr Andrews with sympathy for the frustrations that led to them.
"What I would say to the government and to One Nation is: if you start a fire, it can quickly overwhelm us," she said.
"I urge us all to have standards of behaviour, regardless of our differences, that reflect the need to ensure colleagues and individuals across this country are safe."
Senate leader Simon Birmingham called for civility in public debate, joining Labor's call for an apology from One Nation Senator Malcolm Roberts.
"The sharing of private contact details, personal confidential arrangements in relation to any member of parliament, indeed in relation to any individual, without their consent or knowledge is inappropriate [and] should not occur," he said.
Senator Roberts said the party did not condone the leaking of personal numbers, but said Senator Lambie's was already publicly available.
"Yesterday, Senator Lambie said people make decisions and there are consequences for those decisions," he said.
Senator Roberts claimed One Nation candidate Steve Mav published the number after receiving it from a member of the public, who got it from Senator Lambie's Facebook page. He claimed Mr Mav had removed it from his social media.